Selasa, 5 Oktober 2010

Contoh dan Format Nota Kaki APA style

APA ( American Psychological Association)

Kebanyakan universiti di Malaysia memberi kebebasan kepada pelajarnya memilih mana-mana sistem nota rujukan/ bibliografi dalam penulisan tesis atau disertasi pelajar namun demikian pelajar perlu mengikut secara konsisten terhadap kaedah penulisan yang dipilih oleh mereka samada APA. Bagi IPGM pula sistem yang perlu digunakan dalam penulisan ilmiah, tugasan, kertas projek khususnya dalam KKBI ialah sistem APA

APA Sistem

A. Penulisan Nota Rujukan Gaya APA Sistem

Rujukan yang dinukilkan dalam teks, samada sumber rujukan itu telah diterbitkan atau tidak hendaklah direkodkan. Sebagaimana sistem Harvard, menulis nota rujukan gaya APA juga mengambil kira sumber rujukan atau bahan samada buku, jurnal, tesis, laman Web dan sebagainya.

1. Kaedah Menulis Nota Rujukan Bagi Bahan Yang Diambil Daripada Buku
Apabila mengunakan sistem ini, rujukan dalam teks hendaklah ditulis atas nama utama pengarang sahaja (tanpa nama ringkasannya) seperti berikut:

(i) Meletakan tahun terbitan dalam kurungan selepas nama pengarang yang dirujuk. Contohnya:
“Menurut Brown (2005), salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan guru pendidikan khas meninggalkan bidang tersebut ialah kerana kurang menerima pengiktirafan”.

(ii) Jika nama pengarang tidak perlu ditulis dalam ayat, maka tuliskan nama dan tahun dalam kurungan. Contoh:
“Oleh itu, kajian menunjukkan salah satu factor yang menyebabkan guru pendiddikan khas meninggalkan bidang tersebut ialah kerana kurang pengiktirafan (Brown, 2005)”

(iii) Sekiranya bahan sumber yang dirujuk dihasilkan oleh dua pengarang, tuliskan nama kedua-dua pengarang. Contohnya:
“Mengikut Platt dan Olsen (1990) pula, sesuatu program pendidikan khas hanya akan dapat dilaksanakan dengan sempurna sekiranya guru-guru pendidikan khas menerima pengiktirafan daripada ibu bapa”

(iv) Bagi tiga pengarang atau lebih, tuliskan et.al selepas nama pengarang pertama. Contoh:
“Antara suasana tugas yang dialami oleh guru pendidikan khas dalam program percantuman masalah pendengaran yang mungkin boleh memberi kesan kepada pencapaian akademik murid adalah pengiktirafan (Podemsky et.al, 1995)”

(v) Gunakan huruf kecil (a,b,c), untuk mengenal pasti dua atau lebih penerbitan bagi pengarang yang sama dan dikeluarkan pada tahun yang sama. Contoh:

“Contoh perisian yang mengunakan bahasa pengaturcaraan kekangan ialah ILOG Solver (Puget dan Albert, 1994a)

“Pengunaan objek amat meluas, terutama dalam pengaturcaraan kepintaran buatan (Puget dan Albert, 1994b)


2. Rujukan Bagi Bahan Yang Diambil Selain Daripada Buku

i. Jurnal
Contoh Jurnal:
Herrington, A.J (1998). The Prototype as a construct in abnormal psychology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 575-585
Cara menulis dalam teks:
Menurut, Herrington (1998)……………

ii. Tesis
Contoh tesis:
Fadilah Kamsah (2000). Kesedaran IT di kalangan Kakitangan awam: Satu Tinjauan. Unpublished thesis. UiTM: Fakulti Pengajian Maklumat.
Cara menulis dalam teks:
Fadilah Kamsah(2000), mengatakan bahawa……….

iii. Bahan dari Laman Web
Contoh Web
Clinton, J.E.(1999 september). Malaysia justice on trial. E. Journal. 4(4):12-15. Retrieved October 21, 2000, from the World Wide Web:http://www@babyrib.clnt.gov.com.
Cara menulis dalam teks:
…………….(Clinton, 1999).

B. Penulisan Bibliografi Gaya APA

Bibliografi ialah nama yang diberikan untuk senarai buku-buku, manuskrip dan dan lain-lain penerbitan yang dirujuk , diterang dan disusun secara sistematik. Ia terdapat dibahagian belakang akhiran sesebuah penerbitan bercetak. Penulisan bibliografi perlu mengikut format seperti berikut:
i. Mengikut turutan abjad
ii. Mengikut aturan yang dimulakan dengan nama pengarang, tahun terbit, tajuk, tempat terbit dan penerbit
iii. Baris kedua dan seterusnya ditulis ke tengah (1 tab)

Berikut ialah contoh-contoh bibliografi mengikut kaedah APA
Bahan bercetak

• Buku: Tiada Pengarang

A World of Strangers: Order and action in urban public space.(1999).2nd.ed. New York: Basic
Books.
• Buku:Seorang pengarang

Lofland, L.(1999). A World of Strangers: Order and action in urban public space. New York:
Basic Books.

• Buku : Dua Pengarang
Lofland, L & Taylor, I (1999). The New Criminalogy: For a social theory of deviance. New York:
Harper & Row

• Buku: Tiga Pengarang
Lofland,L., Young, J. & Taylor, I (1999).The new criminology: For a social theory of deviance.
New York: Harper & Row

• Buku: Lebih dari tiga Pengarang
Lofland, L., et.al (1999). The new criminology : for a social theory of deviance. New York:
Harper & Row.

• Buku Terjemahan

Rank. O. (1932). Psychology and the soul ( William Turner, Trans.) Philadephia: University of
Pennsylavania Press.

• Buku dikarang oleh Badan Korporat
Commision on intergoverment relations (1995). Report to the President. Washington, DC: Author.
Committee of public finance. (1999). Public Finance. New York:Pitman

• Buku Yang disunting

Friedman, R.J., & Katz, M.M. (Eds.) (1974). The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory
and research. New York:Wiley.

• Manuskrip yang tidak diterbitkan
Hardison, R. (1983).On the shoulders of giant. Unpublished manuscript
• Artikel dari Majalah
Klinger, E. (2000, August). The power of daydreams. Psychology Today. 36-44. Shuttle crew
studying ozone layer in atmosphere. (2000, April). Time. 34

• Artikel dari Akhbar
Mohammed Azam Noor. (1999, 3 july).’Why Ziana Zain as literary person for 1998?’ New Straits
Times : 25

• Artikel dari Jurnal

Herrington, A.J. (1998) The prototype as a construct in abnormal psychology. Journal of
abnormal psychology, 90, 575-585.

• Tesis
Raihaniah Zakaria (2007). Tuan Guru Haji Zakaria b. Ismail: Sumbangannya Kepada
Perkembangan Pendidikan dan Politik Islam di Negeri Kelantan. Unpublished thesis,
Akademi Pengajian Islam Universiti Malaya: Jabatan Akidah.

• Doctoral Dissertation
Smith A.B. (1999). Anlysis of interaction process and sociometric relatins developed during
theraphy with offenders on probation. :Unpublished doctoral dissertations. New York:
New York University.

• Seminar/Proceeding
Ali Hanafiah, Datuk & Tun Shah Ashari. (12-17 August 1999). ‘The effect of DNA testing on
convicted felons in Malaysia’. In Proceeding of the International Seminar on DNA
Testing and Their Effects on Human Beings. Kuala Lumpur


• Kertas kerja persidangan
Sheehan, W.J. (1999, April). Wicked as hell itself:women in prisons of Georgian London. In
the meeting of The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. U.K. : Georgia.

• Laporan

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (1983). Assessing the impacts
of technology on society. (Report). Washington DC: U.S.G.P.O.

• Kaset Audio
Kenny, G. (producer & singer). (1996). Kenny G the moment [cassette]. New York: Arista Records, Inc.

• Filem/Pita Audio
Habsah Hassan (producer) & Othman Hafsam (director). (2000). Soal Hati [Film]. Kuala Lumpur: Serangkai Film Sdn Bhd.
Capra, F. (Director & Producer). (1934). It happened one night [Film]
Capra, F. (Director & Producer). (1999). It happened one night [Videocassette]

• Bahan Permainan
Chess Set (1999). [Game] Selangor, Malaysia: Syarikat Perusahaan Plastik Ban Tong Sdn. Bhd

• Peta
Derbysgire, E. et al. (2000). Glacier map of Tasmania. [Map]. London: Royal Georgraphical Society.

• Gambar Potret
Rembrabdt. (1999). Two dancers on a stage.[Portrats]. London: National Gallery of Art.
• Bahan Relia
Human development models. (2000). [Realia]. Philadelphia: DCA Educational Products.


• Temuramah
Mahathir Mohamed (1999, April 20). Prime Minister Malaysia. Personal Interview. Kuala Lumpur.
• Mikrofom
James, William. (2000). The principles of psychology.[Microform]. 2nd.Ed.Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

• Program televisyen
The haze in Malaysia: impact on tourism. (2000 Disember). Majalah 3. With Norazlina Ridzwan. TV3. Damansara, Selangor: Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad.

• Alat mudah alih-CD-ROM. Eg :BPO, GPO, IEEE.

• On line-INTERNET

Clinton, J.E. (1999) September). Malaysian justice on Trial. E. Journal. 4(4): 12-15. Retrieved October 21 2000, from the World Wide Web: http:www@babyrib.clnt.gov.com

• E-mail
Day, Martha. Mday@usage.uvm.edu. (30 Julay 1999). Review of film---Chicken Run. E-mail to Xia Li (XLI@moose.com).

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